Pickering J, Jotzo F, Wood PJ (2015) Sharing the Global Climate Finance Effort Fairly with Limited Coordination. Glob About Polit 15:39-62 The president`s promise to renegotiate the international climate agreement has always been a smokescreen, the oil industry has a red phone inside, and will Trump bring food trucks to Old Faithful? Under U.S. law, U.S. participation in an international agreement may be denounced by a president acting on the executive branch or by an act of Congress, regardless of how the United States acceded to the agreement. The Paris agreement stipulates that a party cannot withdraw from the agreement within the first three years of its entry into force. Recognizing that many developing countries and small island developing states that have contributed the least to climate change are most likely to suffer the consequences, the Paris Agreement contains a plan for developed countries – and others that are able to do so – to continue to provide financial resources to help developing countries reduce and increase their capacity to withstand climate change. The agreement builds on the financial commitments of the 2009 Copenhagen Accord, which aimed to increase public and private climate finance to developing countries to $100 billion per year by 2020. (To put it in perspective, in 2017 alone, global military spending amounted to about $1.7 trillion, more than a third of which came from the United States. The Copenhagen Pact also created the Green Climate Fund to mobilize transformation funding with targeted public dollars. The Paris agreement expected the world to set a higher annual target by 2025 to build on the $100 billion target by 2020 and create mechanisms to achieve this. While the enhanced transparency framework is universal and the global inventory is carried out every five years, the framework must provide „integrated flexibility“ to distinguish the capabilities of developed and developing countries. In this context, the Paris Agreement contains provisions to improve the capacity-building framework.  The agreement recognizes the different circumstances of some countries and notes, in particular, that the technical review of experts for each country takes into account the specific capacity of that country to report.
 The agreement also develops a capacity-building initiative for transparency to help developing countries put in place the necessary institutions and procedures to comply with the transparency framework.  The 2015 Paris Climate Change Conference (COP 21) catalyzed an unprecedented vision of combating climate change and engagement on the part of a wide range of non-state actors, including businesses and investors, subnational governments and civil society organizations. Governments have taken a series of measures in … Under U.S. law, a president may, in certain circumstances, authorize U.S. participation in an international agreement without submitting it to Congress. Whether the new agreement implements a pre-agreement, such as the UNFCCC, ratified by the Council and Senate approval, and whether it complies with existing U.S. legislation and can be implemented on that basis.
Since the agreement does not contain binding emission targets or binding financial commitments beyond those of the UNFCCC and can be implemented on the basis of existing legislation, President Obama has decided to approve it through executive measures. While formal adherence to the agreement is simple, the biggest challenge for a Biden administration would be to present a new U.S. NDC, widely seen as ambitious and credible. If the United States joined the agreement, it would be technically necessary to implement an NDC within 30 days. Many countries have stated in their INDCs that they intend to use some form of international emissions trading scheme to implement their contributions.